Mobile Dictionary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A

  • Accelerometer: An embedded sensor that measures acceleration, tilt, and overall orientation, making the screen shift from landscape to portrait as you tilt or rotate your device. The accelerometer was first used by Apple in the iPhone but is now a standard component of most tablets and high-end smartphones.
  • Acquisition: In marketing, acquisition is defined as inciting a customer to engage in some way, ideally through a purchase but also through volunteering personal info of some kind or otherwise participating in a campaign. Marketing campaigns are often defined by their acquisition rate—that is, the percentage of potential customers who engage (acquisition rate = customers who engage/total number of potential customers).
  • Aggregator (SMS): Organizations with the technical infrastructure and business relationships required to send and receive SMS/MMS messages across the wireless carrier networks. The organizations function as middlemen between wireless carriers and brands and any business or individual wishing to use SMS in the United States must procure the services of an aggregator. The aggregator provides the brand with hosting for their code, connection to the wireless carriers, bulk rate messaging, and, in some cases, campaign planning and management or access to a self-service campaign management portal for an extra monthly fee.
  • AJAX: Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, or AJAX, is a combination of web technologies, including HTML, XHTML, CSS, JavaScript, XML, XSLT, the Document Object Model and the XMLHttpRequest. Together, these technologies allow developers to create web sites and web applications that update immediately as users perform an action, without requiring a reload of the entire page.
  • Alerts: Opt-in notifications, usually in the form of an SMS message, containing time-sensitive information such as sale info, weather, news, events, and the like that are pushed to a user’s mobile device at their request.
  • Alphanumeric: A passcode or coupon code composed of numbers and letters.
  • Alt-tags: Alt-tags are text descriptions that are displayed while an image is being loaded or in lieu of an image when a user has images turned off on a mobile device. Since images often take longer to load via mobile and some users turn images off altogether, alt-tags are considered a best practice for mobile SEO.
  • Ambient: Marketing that combines various non-desktop digital interfaces and media, such as mobile devices, surface technology, Bluetooth, augmented reality, and the like, to create real-time user experiences. Ambient media use your smartphone to activate—and make interactive—the physical world around you.
  • Ambient State: The at-rest state of a device or any type of digital interface.
  • Anchor Text: The clickable text in a webpage link that is actually visible to the user; an important element of SEO.
  • Android: Google’s native operating system for smartphones and tablets. Android versions to date have all been nicknamed after deserts and include Cupcake (1.5) Donut (1.6), Éclair (2.0/2.1), Froyo (2.2), Gingerbread (2.3), Honeycomb (3.0), Ice Cream Sandwich (4.0) and Jellybean (4.1)
  • APAC: An acronym for the Asia-Pacific region, including (as a rule) all of Asia and Australasia.
  • API: An application programming interface (API) is a set of technical specifications that enable one type of system to interface with another, facilitating the exchange of digital information.
  • App Definition Statement: A document that contains an app’s purpose, users and high-level features and content.
  • App Extensions: A form of paid search engine marketing offered by Google that enables an advertiser to promote native mobile applications by including a download link for an app within the body of search ads on mobile devices.
  • Applications (native): Applications designed to be downloaded and installed on a user’s mobile device. Native applications differ from web applications in that they are able to tap into the device’s native functions and features, for example the camera or near-field communication (NFC) chip, and allow the user to save information and access some or all content and features offline. Native applications are usually designed using compiled programming languages such as C++ or Java, or, in some cases, a combination of compiled code and a front-end markup language such as HTML5.
  • Applications (web): An application designed to enable a user to perform a specific function or set of functions within a web browser; in the case of mobile applications, usually designed with HTML5.
  • App Map: A ‘site map’ for a mobile application, showing all of the screens within the app as they relate to one another.
  • App Review sites: Websites devoted to reviewing, and, in some cases, rating and categorizing native mobile applications.
  • App Store: A destination (in both website and native application form) from which free and paid native mobile applications can be discovered and downloaded. The best-known app stores are iTunes and GooglePlay but numerous others exist including native app stores for Windows and BlackBerry, versions particular to wireless carriers worldwide, and various independent storefronts such as GetJar.
  • ARPU: Average Revenue Per User, a benchmark used by carriers to gauge the annual average expenditures of a wireless subscriber on mobile voice and data services.
  • AT&T: The second largest US wireless carrier and original Apple partner for the launch of the iPhone.
  • Attribution: In general marketing parlance, determining which channels in the marketing mix influenced the final conversion and to what degree.
  • Augmented Reality (AR): The overlay of digital information onto real world objects and locations, as viewed through a digital interface such as a smartphone, or web cam. AR experiences are triggered via geo-location, reading, or scanning of some kind of physical marker or through a combination of both.
  • B

  • Blackberry App World: Research in Motion’s native app store for Blackberry devices at http://appworld.blackberry.com.
  • Beta Testing: Performing tests of an early, working version of a website or native application to assess functionality and usability.
  • Blind Ad Network: An ad network model in which advertisers have no insight into where their ads run; often composed largely of remnant inventory. Ads are placed in “channels” of sites categorized together according to content type or intended audience.
  • Bluecasting: The use of Bluetooth to distribute marketing messages and content such as coupons, videos, and other types of marketing messages and offers. Bluecasting is usually an opt-in service in which users agree to receive messages when they are in the proximity of a Bluetooth hotspot.
  • Bluetooth: A two-way, short range, wireless protocol for data transmission on the 2.4GHz spectrum. The most familiar and common uses of Bluetooth are in wireless phone headsets, wireless mice and keyboards, and in-car systems, but the technology can also be used to distribute content from a Bluetooth hotspot to end-use mobile devices (see Bluecasting)
  • Branded apps: Native mobile applications designed and distributed by and for the benefit/promotion of a brand; can be free or paid (versus free or premium apps developed and distributed by app developers).
  • Brick and mortar: Brands with a physical presence, most commonly a retail store of some kind.
  • C

  • Call to Action: A text or (sometimes) visual cue that encourages a customer or potential customer to participate in a campaign in some way.
  • CAN-SPAM: An act signed into law in 2003 that prohibits the sending of unwanted, unrequested commercial email messages (also known as SPAM).
  • Carrier: Short for “wireless carrier”, the telecommunications services providers that distribute voice and data services in the US and other countries.
  • Carrier Decks: The proprietary mobile web portals that wireless carriers curate to deliver premium content and services to their customers. Carrier decks are generally closed to all but the wireless carrier’s customers and, for this reason, were once referred to as “walled gardens”.
  • Channel: A specific area of advertising or marketing that brands can use to connect with their customers—email marketing, for example, or display advertising.
  • Churn rate: Refers to the speed with which mobile subscribers leave one carrier for another. It is an overall indicator of the vitality of a wireless carrier’s business—the lower the churn, the better.
  • Click-to-call: A link placed in a mobile ad or on a mobile webpage that automatically initiates a phone call between the advertiser and user when clicked.
  • Click-to-offer: A search engine marketing format that enables a user to click to obtain a special offer or deal.
  • Click-to-download: A search engine marketing format containing a link to an app store download page.
  • Cloud Platform (mobile): A service provider that offers cloud-based tools that can be used to mobilize an existing .com site for multiple device types.
  • Common Short Code Administration (CSCA): An entity that administers the licensing and use of common short codes for a particular country. The CSCA for the United States can be found at www.USShortcodes.com.
  • Content Audit: An assessment designed to categorize content belonging to a brand according to its usefulness, availability, and location.
  • Content Provider: An entity providing mobile content and/or services to the end user or to other businesses including (but not limited to) mobile websites, native mobile applications, games, ringtones, movies, and music.
  • Content Strategy: Strategic planning devoted to identifying the need for specific types of content required to meet defined business goals and user needs.
  • CSC: Common Short Codes, also known simply as short codes, are 5-6 digit numbers that act as addresses to and from which SMS and MMS marketing messages are sent and received.
  • Competitive Analysis: The practice of comparing a brand to one of more competitive brands on the basis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
  • Couch Commerce: A colloquial term for shopping activities conducted on tablets from the comfort of the user’s home.
  • CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access, a 2G wireless technology standard.
  • Chip-and-Pin: A security system for payments in which a microchip on a card or device is activated by the input of a pin number at the point of sale.
  • CTR: Click Through Rate—the percentage of exposed users who actually click on an ad. The formula for calculating CTR is derived by dividing clicks by impressions and multiplying by 100 (clicks/impressions x 100).
  • .com: A colloquial term for a desktop website.
  • Context: The situational wants and needs of a user based on his or her position within the customer journey.
  • CPA: Cost Per Acquisition—the spend required to acquire a customer. The formula for calculating CPA is derived by dividing average cost per click by the conversion rate (average cost per click/conversion rate).
  • CPC: Cost Per Click, an ad pricing model in which advertisers pay a set fee to a publisher or ad network every time their ad is clicked
  • CPM: Cost Per Thousand, a pricing model for advertising in which the advertisers agrees to pay a set fee to the publisher or ad network for every thousand potential customers exposed to their ad.
  • Cross-Platform Toolkits: A collection of tools, code samples, and APIs that enable developers to use markup code and scripted computer programming languages to develop native mobile applications for multiple platforms at once.
  • CSS: Cascading Style Sheets, a document containing stylistic code that dictates the appearance of a website or page.
  • CSS3: Cascading Style Sheets Level 3 is the most recent iteration of CSS used in conjunction with HTML5 to create dynamic cross platform websites and applications.
  • Customer Journey: The path taken by a potential customer from the initial stages of discovering a brand to becoming a loyal customer and advocate.
  • Customer Interviews: One-to-one discussions with archetypal consumers designed to inform the development of personas and/or customer journey maps.
  • Customer Relationship Management: The process of curating a brand’s interactions with its customers across multiple touch points, including sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support.
  • D

  • Day Parting: The practice of placing advertising to be displayed at times of day in which it will be most effective.
  • Desktop Traffic Analysis: The practice of assessing a brand’s .com traffic to determine the types of mobile devices prevalent and the unique behaviors of the mobile users.
  • Developer License: A license to develop official native applications for a particular platform such as iOS or Android.
  • Device Detection: The practice of detecting what type of device is requesting a web page and then delivering content that is formatted specifically for that device. Usually achieved via some type of server-side script.
  • Digital Out of Home: Billboards and other types of large-scale digital display signage that can be connected to the web and interacted with via mobile device.
  • Direct Carrier Billing: The practice of allowing mobile users to make a purchase via their device with the cost of the purchase going directly to their phone bill; a highly popular means of payment for charitable giving and TV voting.
  • Direct Marketing Association: A non-profit professional organization devoted to supporting the needs and efforts of the direct marketing community. It can be found at http://www.the-dma.org.
  • Double Opt-In: The practice of requiring a subscriber to opt in twice for an SMS or MMS marketing program; most commonly required for programs involving ongoing messages or premium content.
  • DotMobi: A consortium devoted to espousing use of the .mobi top-level domain convention for mobile websites.
  • E

  • Earned Media: Buzz gained through editorial content, PR, and word of mouth.
  • Engagement: The degree to which a user is consistently attuned to and interested in a brand and its content.
  • F

  • Flash Lite: A version of the Flash Player designed specifically to address the limitations of mobile devices for mobile devices.
  • Fourth Generation (4G): The fourth, and most recent, generation of wireless technology standards. There are currently two competing 4G technologies, Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMAX. Most of the Tier One U.S. wireless carriers have committed to implementing LTE.
  • Free to end user: An SMS program in which the Mobile Terminated (MT) SMS/MMS messages sent to end user incurs no expense to that user.
  • Feature phone: A mobile phone that does not have a fully functioning web browser that is typically used primarily for voice calling and texting. Feature phones are usually smaller in size than smartphones and have smaller, non-touch screens.
  • Fragmentation: The challenges posed by the vast diversity of devices in the mobile ecosystem with their varying platforms, operating systems, functions, and form factors.
  • FCC: The Federal Communications Commission, an organization within the US government that regulates the wired and wireless communications standard and business practices within the United States.
  • Femtocell: A device that acts as a mini-cell tower, improving wireless coverage by connecting to mobile devices using their native data standards and routing those signals via a broadband connection to the wireless carrier.
  • Firmware: The native operating system of a mobile device.
  • Focus Groups: The gathering of a group of consumers who match a brand’s target audience to assess their behavioral patterns or to assess their opinion of a website, application, or marketing campaign.
  • Freemium: Native mobile applications that are free to download but incur charges for updates or certain additional services/content.
  • Fully Hosted: Mobile websites that are developed and hosted by a third party apart from the brand that owns the site.
  • Fully Native Mobile Apps: Mobile applications developed using the app platform’s native software development kit (SDK) and making little or no use of external data sources.
  • G

  • 1G: The first generation of wireless standards based on analog technologies.
  • 2G: The second generation of wireless standards that delivered voice and data based on digital technologies, which included: Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and (Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM).
  • 3G: The third generation of wireless standards, delivering voice and data at rates as high as 2Mbps. 3G standards include UMTS/W-CDMA, CDMA2000, CDMA 1xEV-DO, EDGE and CDMA 1xRTT.
  • 4G: The fourth, and most recent, generation of wireless technology standards. There are currently two competing 4G technologies, Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMAX. Most of the Tier One U.S. wireless carriers have committed to implementing LTE.
  • Geolocation: The practice of assessing a mobile phone owner’s exact location by use of the Global Positioning System and the GPS capabilities native to the mobile device.
  • Google Wallet: An NFC-enabled mobile payment service developed by Google that enables users to store payment info, loyalty cards, and other types of currency in secure digital format and make purchases at the point-of-sale by tapping the POS terminal.
  • GPS: The Global Positioning System, a satellite navigation system maintained by the United States government. The signals relayed by the GPS are freely available to businesses and individuals and are used by the wireless carriers to pinpoint the positions of subscribers.
  • Gingerbread: The 2.3 version of the Android operating system that included NFC, Google Talk and Google Wallet.
  • GooglePlay: Google’s app store for Android devices at http://play.google.com.
  • Google AdSense: A service run by Google that enables publishers to run Google search marketing and content ads on their websites.
  • Google AdWords: A service run by Google that enables advertisers to create and manage search marketing campaigns.
  • Google Voice: Google’s Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) telecommunications service, providing users with free PC-to-PC calls globally, mobile to mobile, PC-to-phone calls in the United States.
  • GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications, AKA Groupe Special Mobile, the original 2G data standard operating on the 850MHz, 900MHz, 1800MHz, and 1900MHz frequency bands. GSM devices are separated into Quadband (supports all four bands), Triband (supports 3 bands) or Dual Band (supports 2 bands).
  • H

  • Haptics: The use of touch as method of relaying information to a user through a digital interface.
  • Hosted Mobile Sites: Refers to mobile website hosted by a third party.
  • HTTP headers: Key elements of the request that is made when a device (in this case a mobile device) requests a page from a website.
  • HMTL5: The latest iteration of the web’s primary markup language, with elements that are instrumental in building touch and geo-centric, app-like mobile user experiences.
  • HTTP REQUEST: The request sent by a device to a website to retrieve and display a particular webpage.
  • Hybrid Mobile Apps: Refers to native mobile applications that are developed using the native SDK but make use of web-based content and services to provide essential elements of the user experience.
  • Human Interface Guidelines: Guidelines issued by Apple to aid developers in creating mobile websites and applications that fully leverage all the features and functionality iOS devices have to offer.
  • I

  • Ideation: In mobile parlance, the process of developing a creative concept for an app, mobile website or campaign.
  • Image Technologies: Refers to technologies that make use of some form of image recognition, including quick response (QR) and other forms of barcode scanning as well as true forms of image recognition such as Google Goggles.
  • Intent: The level of a user’s readiness and willingness to engage and/or convert.
  • Internal Market Research: Research conducted by a brand on its competitors and marketplace dynamics.
  • Internal Customer Research: Research conducted by a brand on its own customers.
  • In-app advertising: Mobile ads inserted into a native application as opposed to a mobile web page. In-app ads are often more complex and immersive than mobile web ads, creating an app-within-an-app experience.
  • iOS: Apple’s operating system for mobile devices including the iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad, currently in its 6.0 iteration.
  • 1-D barcode: Barcodes that present data in a linear, one-dimensional fashion. The most familiar flavor of 1-D barcode is the UPC barcode commonly found on product packaging.
  • Intangible Goods: Refers to digital content sold via native mobile applications such as games, credits, points, ebooks, and so forth.
  • In-House Apps: Native mobile applications meant to be distributed solely within a brand’s internal confines for the benefit of its employees (versus apps meant to be distributed through an app store).
  • Index: The database in which a search engine stores the web pages indexed by bots.
  • ITU: International Telecommunications Union, an agency of the United Nations devoted to promoting international cooperation for wireless communications infrastructure and standards.
  • IVR: Interactive Voice Response, a digital system enabling users to interact with a menu of choices by voice command.
  • J

  • Jailbreak: The practice of taking a phone specifically programmed to run on one wireless carrier network and modifying it to work on another.
  • K

  • Keyword (SMS): In SMS parlance, a keyword is a word or phrase used to identify a unique campaign running on a specific common short code. Multiple keywords can be provisioned for a single common short code, which enables that one code to support numerous simultaneous campaigns.
  • Keyword (Search): In search parlance, a keyword is a word or phrase entered by a user into a search engine to discover content. As a best practice, content owners integrate the keywords popular with their customers into their mobile web content in as effort to make that content more easily discoverable for their target audience.
  • Keyword density: Keyword density refers to the ratio of keywords to non-keywords within a mobile web page.
  • L

  • Latency: the lag that occurs between the time content is requested by the user and when it is actually delivered.
  • Long Term Evolution (LTE): The most recent 4G data standard based on WCMDA and supported now in the United States by all of the Tier One wireless carriers.
  • Location Based: Advertising and/or content services that use geolocation data to customize the user experience, delivering location-specific content, services, or offers.
  • M

  • Machine to Machine (M2M): Technologies in which one digital system communicates directly with another.
  • Marketing: The use of various media channels to connect with customers and familiarize them with your brand.
  • m-commerce: A blanket term for all shopping and buying activities occurring via mobile devices.
  • Media Queries: A feature of CSS that checks for particular aspects of the device making a page request, for example screen size and modifies layout accordingly.
  • Media Strategy: The use of strategic planning processes to inform the development of media campaigns and purchase of media itself.
  • Mis-clicks: The act of clicking on a page element unintentionally due to code errors, poor navigation, or confusing layout.
  • Messaging: Mobile content delivery in the form of text-only SMS messages or multimedia MMS messages sent to mobile devices.
  • Messaging fees: The costs incurred by both the sender and receiver when an SMS message crosses the wireless carrier networks. For brands, these costs usually range from 2 cents to 5 cents on average but can scale lower or higher when bought in volume depending on the aggregator with which the brand chooses to work.
  • Meta Description: An HTML meta tag traditionally used to describe the contents of a web page for the benefit of search engine spiders.
  • Mobile Application Lifecycle: The full lifeycle of a mobile application from the earliest stages of concept ideation, throughout development, and post-launch marketing.
  • Mobile Assisted: In mobile parlance, the use of a mobile device to conduct a transaction in some way, usually through researching and qualifying a purchase.
  • Mobile First: A design practice, rapidly growing in popularity, in which mobile users are given primary consideration in the design of features and navigation and in the development of content.
  • Mobile Marketing: A term that refers to using various forms of mobile media including messaging, mobile web, native mobile applications, mobile search, and mobile advertising to connect with one’s customers.
  • Mobile Originated (MO): A descriptive term for an SMS message that originates directly from a user’s mobile device, as opposed to from the web or some type of offline channel.
  • Mobile Readiness: A measure of the degree to which a brand is able to connect with its customers via mobile channels, particularly via mobile web.
  • Mobile Web: Refers to the Internet as accessed by users via mobile devices.
  • Mobile Web applications: Mobile applications designed to run in the mobile browser; most commonly designed using HTML5 and CSS3.
  • Mobile Search Engine Optimization: A term for the combination of traditional online SEO best practices with specific mobile best practices, such as device detection, that support visibility of mobile websites and applications in search engines and app stores.
  • Mobile Technographics: A brand’s customer demographics as defined by their use of mobile technology.
  • Mpayments: Refers to any monetary transactions conducted using a mobile device as the payment conduit, whether through NFC, mobile wallet, or an external reader.
  • Mobile Wallet: Applications that store payment and other related information such as loyalty cards and coupon offers in digital format on a user’s mobile device.
  • The Mobile Marketing Association (MMA): A global trade organization devoted to the continued growth of mobile marketing. Headquartered in the U.S.A, the MMA includes members from over 40 countries and maintains regional chapters in North America, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Africa, and Asia Pacific. Its activities include evangelization of mobile and establishment of best practices for all mobile channels. The MMA can found at http://www.mmaglobal.com.
  • Mobile Phone Users: Refers to all mobile phone owners, including those using feature phones and smartphones.
  • Mobile Search: The practice of using a mobile device (tablet or smartphone) to conduct search, traditionally via a web browser but also through native apps (or within native app stores such as iTunes) and via voice and visual channels such as QR codes and Google Goggles.
  • Mobile Terminated: A descriptive term for a message sent from a wireless carrier, content provider or brand that ‘terminates’ on the end-users mobile device.
  • Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS): A richer form of SMS messaging that supports delivery and sending of multimedia content such as images, audio, or video to a wireless subscriber.
  • Multitouch: A form of input for touchscreen devices in which two or more fingers to be used to manipulate the screen at one time.
  • N

  • Native Mobile Applications: Mobile applications designed to be downloaded to and run on a user’s mobile device.
  • Near Field Communications (NFC): A short-range, two-way wireless radio frequency ID channel that delivers data using interacting electromagnetic radio fields. NFC differs from other radio transmission standards in that it requires very close proximity (4 inches or less) to transmit data, making it more secure than similar technologies such as Bluetooth.
  • O

  • On-deck: Refers to content and services available from a wireless carrier’s proprietary customer portal.
  • Off-deck: Refers to content and services available via the general Internet (versus those available from a wireless carrier’s proprietary customer portal.
  • Open Rate: the percentage of recipients who open and view a message. Open Rate=(exposed recipients/messages viewed)
  • Opt-in: ‘Opt-in’ refers to the process by which a subscriber gives explicit consent to receive on or more SMS or MMS messages from a wireless carrier or content provider.
  • On-deck: Refers to content and services available from a wireless carrier’s proprietary customer portal.
  • Off-deck: Refers to content and services available via the general Internet (versus those available from a wireless carrier’s proprietary customer portal.
    Open Rate: the percentage of recipients who open and view a message. Open Rate=(exposed recipients/messages viewed)
  • Opt-in: ‘Opt-in’ refers to the process by which a subscriber gives explicit consent to receive on or more SMS or MMS messages from a wireless carrier or content provider. Opt-in is required for all commercial uses of SMS/MMS messaging in the United States. In most cases, a user sending a text to a short code is considered permission to send that user a return message—ongoing messages generally require a specific opt-in message be sent to the sender—for example “Text DEAL back to this short code to receive weekly coupons”.
  • Opt-Out: ‘Opt-out’ refers to the process by which a wireless subscriber revokes their consent to receive further SMS communications from a wireless carrier or content provider. As a standard, the keywords STOP, QUIT, OPT OUT, END, CANCEL, and UNSUBSCRIBE are reserved to generate an automatic opt out on most carrier networks.
  • Operating System (OS): The native master software that runs the core functions of a computer or mobile device. Common mobile operating systems include Apple’s iOS, Android, Blackberry, and Windows Phone.
  • Owned Media: Refers to a brand’s leveragble assets for marketing including its .com website and branded social spaces, for example Twitter and Facebook.
    -in is required for all commercial uses of SMS/MMS messaging in the United States. In most cases, a user sending a text to a short code is considered permission to send that user a return message—ongoing messages generally require a specific opt-in message be sent to the sender—for example “Text DEAL back to this short code to receive weekly coupons”.
  • Opt-Out: ‘Opt-out’ refers to the process by which a wireless subscriber revokes their consent to receive further SMS communications from a wireless carrier or content provider. As a standard, the keywords STOP, QUIT, OPT OUT, END, CANCEL, and UNSUBSCRIBE are reserved to generate an automatic opt out on most carrier networks.
  • Operating System (OS): The native master software that runs the core functions of a computer or mobile device. Common mobile operating systems include Apple’s iOS, Android, Blackberry, and Windows Phone.
  • Owned Media: Refers to a brand’s leveragble assets for marketing including its .com website and branded social spaces, for example Twitter and Facebook.
  • P

  • Paid Media: Media that is purchased for a specified cost per unit; usually refers to display advertising or search engine marketing. Also commonly referred to as Bought Media.
  • Page size: the size in data of a web page usually measured in Kilobytes (KB). Page size has an effect of the transmission and performance of mobile web pages.
  • Page View: the number of time a web page is viewed by users within a specific time period.
  • Palm: also known as Palm One, a US original equipment manufacturer known for its early personal digital assistants, most notably the icon Palm Pilot and later, the Treo. Eventually purchased by HP for its intellectual property in the mobile space.
  • Personalization: the modification of content or a user interface according to customer specified preferences or observed behavioral patterns.
  • Platforms
    Types of mobile devices grouped by capabilities and operating systems for example Android, or iPhone.
  • Point of Sale: the physical point at which an interaction is processed in-store.
  • Premium: mobile content for which a fee is charged.
  • Premium Content: refers to content, usually of the downloadable variety, for which the content provider charges a fee. Examples include ringtones and native mobile applications such as games and digital magazine edition.
  • Portability: the ability of content to be extended to multiple digital touch points.
  • Preferences: a users specific wants and needs, likes and dislikes, as explicitly expressed to a brand.
  • Premium Blind: a mobile ad network in which a sizable percentage of the publishers are premium but advertisers still have little or no visibility into where their ads run.
  • Premium SMS: SMS messages that incur a fee above and beyond standard message rates, usually charged for delivery of premium content.
  • Presence: the availability and willingness of a user to receive content and/or communications from a brand at any given time.
  • Primary Research: research conducted by interfacing with human subjects.
  • Progressive Enhancement: A design practice used in tandem with mobile first in which content and features are layered on top of a core mobile user experience in layers of progressive complexity.
  • Proximity: the physical presence of user to in relation to a brand.
  • Proximity Payments: payments conducted via mobile device based on location whether via pre-set permissions or NFC.
  • Pull: a process in which a user requests marketing messages from a brand, such as mobile originated SMS.
  • Purchase Funnel: the process through which a prospect becomes a customer and eventually an advocate; traditionally progresses from Awareness, to Consideration, to Purchase, to Ownership, to Loyalty.
  • Push: a process in which a brand proactively presents marketing messages to a customer, for example, in-app messages.
  • Q

  • Qualcomm: the technology company that developed the original CDMA standard of mobile communications.
  • Qualitative Research: research designed to answering the more human issues surrounding a subject—the How and Why.
  • Quality Assurance (QA): a test process in which the content and functionality of a site or app are tested for errors, bugs and inconsistencies.
  • Quantitative Research: research designed to assess the more concrete, measureable factors of subject—the Who, What and Where.
  • Quick Response Codes (QR): the most popular form of 2D barcodes used in the United States.
  • R

  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): a wireless technology in which data is transmitted from an RFID tag to an RFID reader via radio frequencies. Used primarily in inventory and supply chain management and automated collection of transit tolls.
  • Random Short Code: Refers to a common short code composed of randomly assembled numbers (versus a vanity code that is explicitly assembled to spell out a word or acronym).
  • Reach: The addressable audience for a particular campaign, website, or app.
  • Receptivity: The degree to which a user is likely to respond to a campaign or content.
  • Redemption: The process of presenting an offer from a brand, such a coupon, for a discount or deal of some kind; usually occurs at the point-of-sale.
  • Redirect: The practice of automatically forwarding a user to a URL different from the one they have clicked. In mobile parlance, refers to using redirects to send a user to mobile specific content.
  • Referrer: The web page that delivered a user to your website.
  • Relevance: In mobile parlance, the ability of content or service to meet a customer’s real time needs.
  • Research In Motion (RIM): An original equipment and manufacturer based in Waterloo, Canada that makes and distributes BlackBerry devices and software.
  • Responsive Design: The practice of designing a single website that modifies its format in real-time to address the needs of the device at hand.
  • S

  • Safari (mobile): The mobile browser native to Apple’s iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad devices.
  • Screen Size: The amount of display space on a device, traditionally measured in pixels. Also sometimes referred to as “screen real estate.”
  • Second Generation (2G): The blanket term for given to GSM, CDMA, and TDMA networks.
  • Secondary Research: Research performed using existing resources such as the web or materials from subscription research providers.
  • Segments: Groups of customers defined by similar personal and/or behavioral characteristics, for example, soccer moms or business travelers.
  • SERP: Search Engine Results Page, a single page of search results returned to an end user’s device by a search engine.
  • SDK: Software development kit, a collection of tools, APIs, and sample code used to create applications.
  • Shared Short Code: The practice of using a single short code to run SMS campaigns for multiple brands (versus licensing a single, brand-specific short code for each). Shared short codes are a popular workaround for brands looking to get to market quickly by bypassing the often lengthy carrier approvals process involved in licensing a unique common short code.
  • Shiny new object syndrome: The propensity of marketers to get blinded by the glamor of new technologies and move forward with using them before determining whether said technology will achieve desirable results.
  • Short code: A 5-6 digit code that acts as a phone number from which brands can send and receive SMS and MMS messages.
  • Showrooming: The practice of shoppers using their mobile device in-store to research a potential purchase by looking for competitive information such as pricing, features, and reviews.
  • Site Links: Additional, clickable links embedded into a search marketing ad designed to drive consumers deeper into a website, or, in the case of mobile, to click-to-call or drive them deeper into an installed mobile application.
  • Single Opt-In: The process by which a subscriber opts in to a standard rate messaging program, usually by texting to a common short code.
  • Smartphone: A mobile device that features a high-density, high-resolution color display (typically a touchscreen interface among the latest generation devices) measuring two or more inches, an advanced, purpose-built operating system, the ability to send and receive email and SMS/MMS, a full-featured web browser that can render standard web pages except those elements built with Flash, access to and the capacity to run applications, a camera that can capture still images and high-definition video, GPS capabilities, and the ability to access both Wi-Fi and high-speed mobile broadband networks.
  • Smartphone UI: A user interface designed to cater to the capabilities of touch-enabled, multimedia capable high-speed mobile devices.
  • SMS: Short message service, a wireless carrier standard for delivering short, text-only messages, usually limited to 160 alphanumeric characters, from person to person or from a business to a consumer. SMS is universally available on smartphones and feature phones. Commonly referred to as “text messaging.”
  • SMS payment provider: A specialized payment processing vendor that supports billing via text message.
  • SoLoMo: A portmanteau word created to signify the nexus of Social, Local, and Mobile marketing.
  • Social machines: Refers to objects that are not traditionally connected to the Internet, such as vending machines, that are rendered interactive by including some type of sensor or other digital component.
  • Spider: Web spiders, also know a bots, robots or crawlers are programs utilized by search engines to discover and index web pages.
  • Splinternet: A term used to describe the growing digitization and connectedness of the human experience.
  • Standard Rate SMS: an SMS program in which the subscriber is billed according the wireless carriers standard messaging rates, usually pennies per message. Standard SMS programs generally require only a single opt-in.
  • Spending Cap Limits: a limit placed on premium SMS programs by wireless carriers in which one content provider cannot bill a subscriber more than a certain amount per month in total charges.
  • Stakeholders: individuals within an organization whose jobs will be influenced by a particular project.
  • Standard Messaging Costs: the basic rates charged by a carrier to a subscriber send a receive SMS messages.
  • Strategy: a customized plan of action for using specific tactics to achieve a desired end goal/goals.
  • Subscribe: The act of agreeing to receive communications from a brand or wireless carrier, usually by SMS.
  • Subscriber: the term used by wireless carriers to refer to their customers.
  • Subscriber Identity Module (SIM): a small, removable card that contains a subscriber’s account information. The SIM is what authorizes a device to connect with the wireless carriers on GSM and UMTS networks. Note that devices running on CDMA networks do not have SIM cards.
  • S-Series: refers to the popular family of feature phone and, later smartphone devices released by Nokia running the Symbian platform. Includes the S40, S60, S80 and S90 line of devices.
  • Subdomain: a URL structure in which pages are housed in a web domain that is a subcategory of a larger web domain, for example http://mobile.kiwi-market.com would be a subdomain of http://www.kiwi-market.com.
  • Subdirectory: a URL structure in which pages are housed in a subdirectory of the main domain, for example, http://www.kiwi-market.com/mobile.
  • Survey: a series of questions fielded to an online audience and designed to assess the wants, needs, and behaviors of a group of users.
  • Sweepstakes: a legalized game if chance in which users can enter to win a prize of some kind without submitting any qualifying criteria.
  • Symbian: a mobile operating system best known for being used by Nokia in its S-series devices and by Sony Ericsson in its UIQ devices.
  • T

  • Tablet: a portable, lightweight computer primarily characterized by a touchscreen navigational interface.
  • Tangible Goods: A term used by Apple to define non-digital content purchased via a native application interface. Examples of tangible goods would be apparel, accessories, household items, and collectibles—in essence, something that is an actual, physical object versus a digital one. Tangible goods are not subject to Apple’s 30% commission fee that is levied on digital content (also known as intangible goods).
    Tap and Go: a slang term for NFC-enabled commerce in which the user simply taps his or her device on an NFC enabled terminal to complete a payment.
  • Targeting: a familiar term from online advertising, targeting refers to the available criteria by which a brand can define the audience for a campaign. Gender, age, direct market association (DMA), household income, time of day (dayparting) and geo-location are all examples of targeting.
  • 2-D barcode: a two-dimensional barcode one-ups its one dimensional cousin by storing information both horizontally and vertically, which enables it to pack in 7,089 characters versus the 20 character capacity of a one-dimensional code. The most commonly known form of 2-D barcode used in the United States is QR; the two terms are often used interchangeably but it should be understood that QR is simple one variety of the 2-D barcode standard.
  • TDMA: An acronym for Time Division Multiple Access, a method oaf data transmission used by wireless carriers in which the wireless spectrum used by the carrier is divided into time slices of a fraction of a second with each device on the network at any given time getting a slice of time within which to transmit its data.
  • Technical Audit: In mobile parlance, a process by which a qualified technologist assesses a brand’s digital infrastructure to assess how it can be extended to multiple device platforms.
  • Technographics: A market research tool used to segment a brand’s customers according to their use of technology.
  • Tethering: A process by which a smartphone is used as a data connection for a larger device, usually a laptop computer. Not every wireless network permits tethering and it generally incurs an extra data fee when it is allowed.
  • Text Message: The most popular colloquial term for an SMS message.
  • Text-to-Screen: The practice of using SMS to send messages to a digital display of some kind, most often some form of digital signage such as a billboard.
  • Third-Party Click Tracking: Refers to using a third-party tracking service to serve as a middleman in verifying any discrepancies between a brand’s own analytics reporting and that of an ad network.
  • Third Generation (3G): The blanket term for the collection of third generation wireless data delivery standards including UMTS, W-CDMA and CDMA2000.
  • T-Mobile: The subsidiary of Germany’s Deutsche Telecom, the T-Mobile brand is present throughout Europe and its US division is the 4th largest US wireless carrier after Verizon, AT&T and Sprint respectively.
  • Touchscreen: A digital display that can be activated and navigated by touch, a term primarily used in reference to smartphones and tablets but equally applicable to larger format screens that make use of surface technology.
  • Tracking: In general marketing parlance, the practice of monitoring the behavior of a user as he or she interacts with media, most commonly by installing a unique identifier on their desktop or mobile device in the form of a cookie.
  • Trafficking (ad): A blanket term for all of the various tasks involved in setting up and managing an online advertising campaign including, but not limited to set up and monitoring of the campaign in an ad serving program.
  • Transcoding: Refers to the process of taking an existing website and modifying it on the fly to be viewable/usable on a device for which it was not originally intended. In the very early days of the mobile web, transcoding was standard practice for search engines in order to ensure that people searching the web from mobile devices could get viewable, navigable content, since so few mobile sites existed at the time.
  • U

  • Unique User: A term that refers to a unique individual who interacts with a brand whether via visiting its website or clicking on an ad. In the case of a website, the number of unique users who visit a site repeatedly is an important KPI and a measure of the site’s overall success. In an ad campaign, the number of unique users indicates the reach of the campaign, that is, how many customers out of those exposed group responded whether positively or negatively.
  • Universal UI: A user interface designed to be equally usable on feature phone and smartphone devices.
  • Unsolicited Messages: SMS or MMS marketing messages sent to a subscriber without his or her prior approval; SMS spam.
  • Unsubscribe: The process by which a user opts out of receiving SMS or MMS messages from a brand, most commonly by texting STOP, QUIT, END, or UNSUBSCRIBE to the brand’s common short code.
  • User Agent: In mobile parlance, a signifier within an HTTP header that tells a website what type of device is requesting a web page from the site.
  • User Interface (UI): The look and feel of a mobile website or application—the navigation, buttons and overall layout. UI can also refer to the desktop design of a smartphone or tablet.
  • V

  • Validate: The process of assessing a design or concept’s affect of the end user.
  • Vanity Code: A common short code that spells out a word or acronym to add an additional level of branding to the campaign experience.
  • Verizon: The largest wireless carrier in the United States, Verizon runs 2G and 3G networks using the CDMA standard and has invested in LTE technology for its 4G coverage.
  • Viewport: The actual viewable screen area of a desktop computer or mobile device
  • VoIP: Voice Over Internet Protocol, a standard for sending voice communications over packet-based data networks. The most popular example of VoIP is Skype, the popular web-based voice and video call service.
  • W

  • Walled Garden: A somewhat antiquated term for wireless carrier “decks”, the closed mobile content portals most carriers offer their subscribers. In the past, most carrier portals either prevented their subscribers from accessing the open web or made it very difficult for them to do so, hence the term walled garden.
  • WAN: A popular acronym for Wide Area Network, a wireless network that connects a Local Area Network (LAN) to the internet—for example a DSL connection that enables a home Wi-Fi network
  • WAP: An acronym for Wireless Application Protocol, a very early, open international set of protocols for the delivery of mobile data.
  • WAP 2.0: An updated set of standards for the delivery of mobile webpages, WAP 2.0 relies on XHTML and end-to-end HTTP, doing away with the specialized gateway required for WAP 1.0 sites. WAP 2.0, released in 2002, opened the door to greater usage of the mobile web by enabling faster, more sophisticated mobile websites.
  • WAP Push: A text message containing a clickable link to a website or mobile application download link
  • WAP Site: In strictest definition, a site designed for mobile devices using the Wireless Access Protocol; an antiquated general term for mobile web sites.
  • WebKit: A rendering engine developed by Apple for the Safari web browser, WebKit now powers the browsers of most other top operating systems including those of Android, Symbian, Blackberry (OS6+), Windows Mobile and Kindle devices as well as select Symbian, Samsung and Nokia devices as well.
  • Weighted Prioritization: The practice of taking a list of desired tactics and assessing each tactic according to a specific set of criteria. Each tactic receives a weighted grade for each criteria, enabling the brand to reassemble the list according to the priority established.
  • White Labeling: The practice of taking an existing piece of content, most commonly a native application, customizing it with a brand’s look and feel and redistributing it part of a promotional or marketing campaign.
  • Wi-Fi: A common blanket term for wireless local area network technologies of the IEEE 802.11 standard. 802.11b and 802.11g. are the two Wi-Fi standards commonly used by desktop and mobile devices.
  • WiMAX: The next generation of Wi-Fi using the IEEE 802.16—basically, wireless broadband and the competing 4G standard vs. LTE. WiMAX promises wireless data speeds of up to 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates.
  • Windows Mobile (Windows Phone): Microsoft’s original operating system for mobile devices it has evolved through many incarnations from the very earliest versions of the Windows CE operating system in the early 90s to the current Windows Phone.
  • Wireless Carriers: Telecommunications operators providing voice and data services to consumers.
  • WLAN: WLAN stands for Wireless Local Area Networks that use the 802.11 standard. Also known as Wifi.
  • WML: An acronym for Wireless Markup Language, a very early markup language based on XML, designed to create mobile-friendly web pages
  • X

  • XGA & WXGA: Acronyms for extensible graphics array and wide extensible graphics array, respectively, these refer to the pixel dimensions of displays on smartphones and tablets. At 1024 by 768, XGA resolution displays (1024 x 768) are uncommon on mobile, but many tablet devices use WXGA (wide XGA), which is generally 1280 x 720 or 1280 x 800.
  • xHMTL: xHTML is a markup language based on HTML that conforms to XML syntax, enabling it to share the same cross-standard compatibility that XML supports. All modern smartphone and tablet browsers can read xHTML web pages and its flexibility makes it an especially popular choice of markup language for developers creating mobile web content.
  • XML: Also known as eXtensible Markup Language, XML is a general-purpose markup language designed to facilitate the sharing of data over the Internet between systems that don’t share the same internal data structures—a sort of digital Esperanto. Many other current popular document specifications including xHMTL, RSS and ATOM are based on XML.
  • Y
    Z

  • Zero Moment of Truth: The real-time moment when a consumer makes a decision about a brand; often facilitated by mobile devices. An extension of a marketing concept developed by A.G. Lafley, former chairman, president and CEO of Proctor & Gamble. Lafley surmised that the first moment of truth occurs when a customer stands in front of a store shelf and makes a purchase decision, the second, when he or she uses the product and has a positive (or negative decision). With the advent of the web and mobile devices, the zero moment of truth emerged where these decisions are made before the consumer sets foot in a store.
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